THE outstanding collection of source material is Jules Quicherat's Proces de condamnation et de rehabilitation de Jeanne d'Arc, etc. (Paris, 1841-49, 5 vols.) It includes all relevant documents available at the time, except that only two theological memoirs are given in full. The hazardous judgments made by Quicherat in his Apercus nouveaux sur l'histoire de Jeanne d'Arc (Paris, 1850) have often been refuted, sometimes with undeserved harshness. They do not affect the greatness of his editorial achievement, which marks an era in the study of Joan's life and trial.

A complete edition of the memoirs, intended as a sixth volume to Quicherat's magnum opus, was published by Pierre Lanery d'Arc, a descendant of Joan's brother, Peter, in 1889. (Memoires et consultations en faveur de Jeanne d'Arc par les juges du proces de rehabilitation, etc, Paris.) In other respects, besides the inaccuracy of the title, the work leaves something to be desired, but is very valuable as the only available text. Its editor also compiled a vast Bibliographic . . . des ouvrages relatifs a Jeanne d'Arc, often referred to by its other title, Le Livre d'Or de Jeanne d'Arc (Paris, 1894). As far as publications in French are concerned, it is almost incredibly exhaustive.

Jean Brehal. . . et la rehabilitation de Jeanne d'Arc, by two Dominican friars, M. J. Belon and Francois Balme (Paris, 1893), is a masterpiece of scholarship to which I am deeply indebted. It contains, besides the complete Latin text of the Recollectio and a French summary, the best account of the whole rehabilitation. Summaries in French of all the memoirs (except an unimportant one unearthed by Lanery d'Arc), so ample as to be almost translations, are to be found, amid much controversy, in La Pucelle devant l'Eglise de son temps, by the Jesuit J. B. J. Ayroles (Paris, 1890). This work forms the first volume of the author's colossal La vraie Jeanne d'Arc (Paris, 1890-1902).

E. O'Reilly, counselor of the Court of Appeals at Rouen under Napoleon III, published (Paris, 1868) the first French translation of the whole Rouen record and of the' rehabilitation testimony (Les deux proces de condamnation, les enquetes et la sentence de rehabilitation de Jeanne d'Arc, etc.), with an excellent introduction, and notes on all the persons involved. The depositions are conveniently arranged according to the portion of Joan's life with which they deal.

Pierre Champion's Proces de condamnation de Jeanne d'Arc (Paris, 1920-21, 2 vols.) includes the Latin text of the Rouen record, a French translation, a valuable introduction, and copious notes on the persons. Its only fault is a tendency to follow Quicherat in defending the legality of the trial and belittling the rehabilitation. What amounts to an English translation of Champion's work has been recently made by W. P. Barrett, Coley Taylor, and Ruth H. Kerr (The Trial of Jeanne d'Arc, etc., New York, 1932).

Even in English, the bibliography is enormous. For Joan's military career I have chiefly followed Andrew Lang's admirable, though discursive, study, The Maid of France (London and New York, 1908).




1 On Joan's Answers to Questions About Her Submission to the Church

Est autem in hoc passu maxime consideranda huius puellae simplicitas, quoniam ex satis exiguis parentibus noscitur traducta, et, more campestrium et ruricolarum puellarum, ad pascua dumtaxat post gregem ire, aut aliud qualecumque pauperculum nendi vel suendi artifccium docta fuit; ideoque, si ad quaestionem ita arduam et ambiguam non plene respondisset quemadmodum utique fecit revera merito digne excusanda venisset. Patet autem eius simplicitas in hac parte, quia, de hac submissione quandoque interrogata, respondit quod, amore Dei, daretur sibi licentia de eundo ad ecclesiam et ad missam. Ecce plane quod ex simplicitate, communi more popularium, maxime intellegebat illud quaesitum de ecclesia materiali et lapidea. Unde et altera vice, dum ei distingueretur ecclesia in militantem et triumphantem, ait: "Videtur mihi quod unum et idem est de Deo et ecclesia, et quod non de hoc debet fieri difficulties." Et subdebat: "Quare facitis vos de hoc dufficultatem?"

The simplicity of this girl is very noteworthy in this situation, since she is known to have sprung from quite poor parents, and, like the girls of peasants and farmers, she was taught only to go to the fields after the flock or some other humble art of weaving or sewing. So that, if she had not fully answered such a difficult and ambiguous question which, however, she did she would, indeed, have deserved to be excused. But her simplicity is evident in this respect, since, when she was questioned about this submission, she answered that, for the love of God, per-mission should be given her to go to church and to Mass. In her simplicity, she obviously understood this question, after the manner of the common people, as having to do with the material church of stone. At another time also, when the distinction between the church militant and triumphant was made for her, she said: "It seems to me that it is the same with the Church as with God, and that no difficulty should be made about this." And she added: "Why do you make a difficulty about it?"

2 The English Discover Joan's "Relapse" by Her Resumption of Male Clothing

Quod attente explorantes illi Anglici alta conclamatione protinus alios complices, mortis lohannae anhelos, concitarunt, dicentes: "Ecce rea est mortis, vos videritis!" Ad episcopum raptim curritur, assidentium magistratus perquiritur et adducitur, vulgus in diversos et paene contrarios affectus scinditur, gens Anglica quasi ecstatico raptu inebriata circumfertur, vel potius, ut dixerim, effreni vesania corripitur et agitur. At et insons lohanna venire coram, quasi ad scenicum illusionis spectaculum, compellitur, detruditur, impetitur, et multiplici ludibrio afficienda exponitur. Sed tamen a constantia solita minime dimovetur.

Eagerly investigating this, those Englishmen at once aroused other accomplices, who were panting for Joan's death, and said: "Behold, you shall see she is worthy of death!" They rushed headlong to the bishop, the tribunal of assistants is sought out and fetched, the crowd is torn by different and well-nigh opposite emotions, the English people, as though intoxicated by an ecstatic seizure, is borne hither and thither, or rather is, as it were transported and moved by unbridled madness. But the innocent Joan is also forced, thrust, and driven into their presence, as though to a theatrical spectacle, and exposed to manifold mockery. Nevertheless she is not at all moved from her accustomed constancy.

3 Principles Which Should Have Guided Joan's Judges

Ubi non apparent manifesta indicia de malitia alicuius, debemus eum bonum habere, semper in meliorem partem interpretando quod dubiurn est. . . . Unde et menus est frequenter falli habendo bonam opinionem de persona mala, quam minus saepe falli habendo malam opinionem de persona bona; quia ex isto fieret iniuria alicui, et non ex primo.

Where manifest indications of anyone's malice do not appear, we should consider him good, always interpreting what is doubtful in the better sense. . . . Whence it is better to be often mistaken by holding a good opinion of an evil person than to be less often mistaken by holding a bad opinion of a good person; since the latter does injury to someone, and not the former.

4 Rashness of the Verdict

Ex quo patet quod huiusmodi sententia, non a discretione, matre virtutum, sed a noverca iustitiae, voluntaria scilicet vindicantis praecipitatione, processit, ideoque nulla est.

From which it is evident that a sentence of this sort proceeds, not from discretion, the mother of virtues, but from the stepmother of justice, namely, the voluntary haste of a vengeful man, and is, therefore, null.